A new multi-
The principles used for the new train location system are:
This approach is drastically different from the recently emerged train-
In LOCOPROL, the safe location is directly based on satellite signals, on which no specific integrity requirements are imposed. As a major output, the study will cover the validation of location principles and systems in railway applications. Safety is based on the concurrent use of satellite signals and information from additional sensors, combined with Kalman filtering techniques. LOCOPROL allows inputs from existing vehicle equipment such as tachometers, radios, and traction/braking control without modification, a considerable saving in cost and reduction in time needed for fitment. See "Requirements and first results of the LOCOPROL system architecture on CP line" by Yves Cautain, JL Franchineau, JP Seiler, G.Alzeal, J.Niro 25 Jan 2005.
A trial service has been tested by the PACA region for reserving a taxi in connection with a regional train (TER) in rural areas between the passenger's home and the station at an inclusive ticket price. There are opportunities for further developments and extension of this idea.
Through Ticketing and Journey Planning
Rudimentary systems exist in most EU countries for journey planning and ticket purchase, but almost all are limited to one mode of transport and for railways often do not work where more than three changes of train are needed (eg SNCF).
We should eventually be able to plan a multi-
RMV Near Field Communication
Developments in the RMV (Rhein-
The section of line between Cannes and Nice is very heavily patronised with many trains overcrowded with passengers having to stand. With the large number of long distance trains and freight traffic it has not been possible to greatly increase the number of local regional trains (TER). Consequently, a third reversible line is being added to this section which will allow many more trains of different categories to operate over this section.
The initial tram routes in the urban area are about 6km from St Sylvestre to the centre (N-
The concept adopted is one that has proved highly successful in other cities similar in size and density to Nice. It will provide:
The new light railway between Sarreguemines and Saarbrcken follows the success of the tram-
The light railway concept is able to provide high performance services on the longer distances outside the urban area and also can safely access the inner urban areas with the same vehicle.
This combination eliminates changes of travel mode and significantly reduces end to end journey times. It makes public transport more attractive and competitive for the private motorist. It is ideal for use in pedestrian urban areas such as that in Rue Massena.
Specification of Nice trams.
The longer term aspirations of CANCA tram operation include tram-
It is possible that trams for tram-
CP and TAM Services to Colomars -
A staged introduction of a metro line uses a large part of the existing infrastructure of the Chemins de Fer de Provence. At the same time this option provides routing which serves one of the key urban passenger flow axes in the Nice urban area. It does this without interrupting the current CP services to Colomars/Carros, La Vesubie, and onwards to Annot and Digne. A possible scenario of stages is:
The CP Terminus
The existing CP route into Nice is, whilst useful in itself, an indirect route into the north of the central urban area. The former Sud de France railway terminus in Avenue Malaussena has closed and connections with SUNbus routes are now not convenient. The new terminus is in a minor road (Rue Alfred Binet) with no bus routes. The nearest bus routes (4&5) stop in Bd Joseph Garnier at the Auguste Reynaud stop. The Malaussena terminus connected with 6 routes (1,2,4,5,22&23).
A natural re-
Single Line Operation Pl De Gaulle Lingostiere
Experience of TSOL (Lausanne) demonstrates that a service of the required frequency and capacity is practical and economical. The double track layout at La Madeleine should be retained in the upgrading to standard gauge Metro standards, but with increased length starting at approximately the 3km post to the 4km post. The section between Lingostiere and St Isidore should also be double track, app 5,9km to 7,8km. This allows flexible timings to be achieved without significant civil engineering works over single line bridges and through single line tunnels.
Performance calculations have been done based on double line through La Madeleine between 3,115km and 4,025km, and beyond the 0,700km and 5,845km points. The shortest practical time to pass through the Parc Imperial and St Philippe section (0,700-
The CP ERTMS LOCOPROL Experiments
Features of the CP LOCPROL tests:
Tests on Equipped Trains (X304 & X306) :
Tests on Non equipped Trains :
These tests were done between Colomars and Plan du Var and St Martin du Var was the location of the loop station tests.
From 2015 extensive commercial and technical development is envisaged at La Vesubie Plan du Var. The line of the CP railway may then be given over to a tram route from Nice via the St Augustin 'gare modal', centre administratif, Lingostiere, Colomars and St Martin. Puget Thenier is within the Alpes Maritime department and could possibly later be a destination for this service. If so, the CP would then operate a shortened service between Puget Thenier and Digne. A remote possibility is extension of the tram-
Grasse has since early 2005 received an urban service of electric trains running through Nice to Monaco and Vintimille. Ideas have been expressed for augmenting this service with tram-
The Maire of Vence is understood to be supportive of a tram service between Vence, Cagnes and Nice.
A fairly frequent service of diesel trains (usually operated by FS -
The 'WALL OF TRAMS' Argument
The Bostrae regulations in Germany restrict the permitted length of coupled trams (which may be one unit) to 75 metres. This is judged to be a reasonable maximum length which, if longer, would effectively block the road to pedestrians who wished to cross by a 'tram wall'. One argument for the proposed Karlsruhe tram subway has been the wall of trams created by several 75metre long tram-
12. Ferroutage and its Effect on Passenger Transport
Vulnerability of dependence on the coastal railway
The collapse of the tunnel at Monaco in the winter 2004, and the lanslide blocking the cote d'azur autoroute in summer 2005 demonstrated the vulnerability of dependence on the coastal railway and autoroute. The railway was closed for several months and the autoroute for a week.
Valle de la Roya et Col de Tende -
Just at 11o'clock on 28th January 2003 two trains collided at 50km/h in the obscurity of the tunnel de la Biogna, just before the gare de Saint-
The train from Nice had 5 passengers on board and the other from Coni (Cuneo) for Vintimille (Ventimiglia) had 200 passangers including 73 turinois schoolchildren travelling to the centre mditerranen de Cap-
The Italian driver of the train from Coni, Attilio Bandiera, 34 ans, from Vintimille, and his collague second man, Giuseppe Bessone, 50 ans, from Coni, were both found dead.
In the afternoon, the prsident of SNCF, Louis Gallois, said such an event was extrmement rare . The maire of the commune, Jean-
Later enquiries found that a junior chef de gare had erroneously authorised the departure of one of the trains.
Col de Tende -
The road between Coni and Breil has seen an enormous increase in traffic since the EU was created and particularly since the common currency was introduced. The level of traffic is judged to present an inacceptable risk for the existing road and tunnel. Options exist for a lower lever large road tunnel, or compulsory ferroutage for commercial vehicles and economically attractive ferroutage for private vehicles. A frequent high performance tram-
LAutoroute Ferroviaire Alpine (Lyon-
This project, to convey TGVs, regional trains, freight traffic and 'ferroutage' is now under construction and an initial 'ferroutage' service has been started using the 'classique' conventional railway.
Ferroviaire via Montgenvre -
The existing val de Durance railway (Aix-
If this link is a railway it would comply with the purposes of the 'Transports de la Convention alpine' Protocol, the EU White Paper on Transport (Livre blanc de septembre 2001, dcision 1692/96/CE), and the national directive of multimodal schemes (dcret 2002-
The international agreement 'Convention Alpine' between 8 alpine countries was signed by France 31 oct 2000. Article 10 states that railway infrastructures are favoured for the principal alpine links, and article 11 states that member states should refrain from constructing new transalpin roads.
On 23 mars 2000, the Conseil Rgional PACA adopted the 4th part of the plan Etat-
Study by SODETEG / GEODE -
This was ordered by Conseil Rgional Provence-
Study by SETEC TPI -
A further study by SETUMONT (Syndicat Mixte d'Etude pour le Tunnel du Montgenvre) looked at the feasibility of the intermediate level option with gradients limited to 2,5%. Costs for the basic project (single line with passing loops and evacuation tunnel) were found to be between 760M and 840M.
Study by GEODATA SETEC -
Requested by the Province of Torino, this proposed:
Study by SETEC TPI -
This recommended alignment 1 of the deep tunnel.
Study by Transaudit -
Ordered by the Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie Marseille-
A ferroutage terminal is being constructed at Orbassano (near Torino) so no terminal investment is required at the north-
13. The LGV PACA
During the spring and summer of 2005 numerous public meetings were convened including experts from government and RfF to sensitize public opinion on this project. Three principal options existed, mainly concerning the alignment or alignments between Avignon, Aix, Toulon and Draguignan. The option providing the most time saving between Nice and Avignon is slightly more expensive and probably has the highest net present value. The most northern route is the shortest between Avignon and Nice and may have a station serving the 'pole scientifique' close to Cadarache, where the ITER is to be constructed.
Publication of Preferred Route
Public consultation was concluded in July to collate all the comments and a decision publishing the prefered option will be made in December.
Coincidentally, the northern route would follow the general direction of the now closed metre gauge line of the CP between Draguignan and Meyrargues.
14. Near Term and Longer Term Studies and Options
What can we expect in the future?
Do they help to reduce greenhouse effects?
They burn organic material that if not burnt would fix atmospheric carbon so it is arguable that given there will be some kind of fuel burnt, they do not reduce the output of greenhouse gases.
We can also argue that organic material grown for bio-
A EU directive has authorised the use of bio-
Hybrid drives and vehicles
They are in limited use now, and their application is expected to grow. For urban journies they effectively reduce energy consumption through the ability of the electric drive to smooth out the peaks and troughs of energy consumption by regenerative recuperation of energy, and allow the IC engine to be designed to operate more efficiently at one optimal speed and torque output.
Consequently, they reduce but do not eliminate consumption of mineral/organic fuels. If used for short distances with shore charging between journies, they effectively become electric vehicles.
Currently, the Toyota 'Prius' is now widely available for the private motorist market.
LPG (GPL) Fuels
Methane, propane and butane have a lower carbon content than liquid petroleum fuels but are not 'carbon free' and therefore cannot be considered as candidates for a fuel economy that will reduce greenhouse gases. It is possible to use these fuels either in conventional internal combustion engines or in fuel cells.
Very limited use so far, the battery capacity is limited, but have found a niche for uses where the daily distance is predictable and within the capacity of the battery, and where the annual distance is high thus justifying the present high capital cost.
Hydrogen for fuel cells present high risks of explosion, there are many places where LPG fuelled vehicles are prohibited (eg all underground car parks in France), and restrictions on vehicles fuelled with hydrogen are likely to be at least as restrictive as for LPG vehicles.
Other kinds of battery (e.g. sodium-
Peugeot SA currently market the Citron Saxa either in the saloon car form or the small delivery van form.
A Railway for Cars
Could this be a possibility, would it be electrically powered?
Mains supply via conductor parallel to trajectory of vehicle exist only for railed vehicles, but very efficient and low risk, energy can be sourced from nuclear power stations or from renewable sources
Vehicles autonomous off the 'highway', probably electrically driven from a battery which with an extensive 'highway' network would generally be adequate. If longer 'off-
Off the 'highway', vehicles might behave exactly as conventional road vehicles with manually operated steering and speed control, and be able to traverse most flat hard surfaces.
A wheel which is compatible with a road surface and a rail on a conventional railway is not known to exist, since the guiding flange is required to project below the rolling surface of the tyre. Most solutions to date have used different wheels which can be raised and lowered as required for either road use or rail use. As the highway would probably be specifically designed for road/rail vehicles it would not have to be in the form of a conventional railway.
A steel/steel rolling interface is arguably preferable for reasons of energy consumption, wear resistance, noise and safety. As the road rolling interface would probably still be rubber/asphalt, it is likely that two different rolling surfaces will be required. Provided that junctions are designed accordingly, a rubber tired wheel on the same axis as a smaller steel tyred flanged wheel is possible. This has implications for the traction drive, as the on-
Electronic coupling might be the more economical as it might be combined with the software for vehicle speed control. However, the coupling can be either direct, by an on-
Route Selection at Diverging Junctions
If a high capacity highway is envisaged with the ability to negotiate junctions en-
Acknowledgements for information from and research published by:-
Nice Matin; GIR-
To view part one of this article -